WHO WE ARE

TLENmedica center is a modern, professional and well-equipped facility provides services in the field of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. We have the experience and knowledge necessary to treat many complicated disease entities. Our employees, thanks to specialized training, have obtained certificates recognized and valued all over the world.
For Patient is the most important for all members of the TLENmedica team. Each patient devote maximum time and attention is individually selected parameters in the range of treatments 1,5-2,0 ATAto achieve the best treatment results. We appreciate the comfort and well-being of both our patients and how their loved ones, so we try to make each treatment took place in a friendly and warm atmosphere.
W pełni świadomi faktu, że nowoczesne, skuteczne i w pełni bezpieczne zabiegi mogą być wykonywane jedynie z wykorzystaniem wysokiej jakości sprzętu, w Centrum TLENmedica stosujemy medyczne komóry hiperbaryczne AHA® Flex .
Medical hyperbaric chambers used in TLENmedica center are large and bright, so that the treatments take place in a comfortable and friendly environment for the patient. Each chamber is connected to two oxygen generators, allowing the use of the procedure by the child and caregiver at the same time!
If you're looking for:
⦁ help of experienced professionals
⦁ Access to the latest technologies
⦁ Comprehensive approach to health
⦁ A friendly and warm atmosphere (important during the treatment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders)
⦁ The highest service standards

Disease units in which HBOT treatment is applied

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in neurodevelopmental disorders

Zaburzenie neurorozwojowe to szeroko pojmowane nieprawidłowości w rozwoju motorycznym i psychicznym dziecka. W obecnych czasach niezależnie od jednostki chorobowej dzieci znajdują się pod opieką wielu specjalistów i terapeutów, którzy wkładają bardzo dużo wysiłku aby poprawić stan zdrowia swoich małych pacjentów. Niestety często okazuje się, że mimo ogromnego zaangażowania efekty w terapii następują bardzo wolno lub są niemal niezauważalne. W tym momencie pojawia się pytanie „Czy można zrobić coś więcej?”

A perfect complement to the therapy is hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which does not focus on eliminating the symptoms of the disease, but supports the body's natural ability to regenerate and heal itself.
Hyperbaric oxygenotherapy effectively supports the treatment of such neurodevelopmental disorders as:
- autism
- cerebral palsy
- Down's syndrome
- Asperger's syndrome
– FAS

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy by improving microcirculation, the process of formation of new blood vessels healthy, and above all to increase the solubility of oxygen in the plasma leads to better oxygenation and to provide the right amount of nutrients to cells throughout the body improving its functioning.

Most children with neurodevelopmental disorders do not have to deal with one health problem. Their health status consists of multiple comorbidities.

Autism

Recent studies show that many children with autism experience hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow) in the temporal and frontal lobes, which translates into problems in speech development and social contacts. In addition, in children with autism spectrum very often inflammation, food allergies, high concentration of heavy metals and fungal organism occur.

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in autism:
improvement of eye contact
improvement of interaction with the environment and psycho-social skills
improvement to good mood, reduction of timidity and irritability
improvement the speed of association and reaction
bigger involvement and concentration
improvement language skills - understanding the language better, faster absorption of new words and concepts, increase vocabulary
improvement of appetite, functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system
reduction of mold body

Cerebral Palsy (MPD)
In the case of cerebral palsy, the child's condition depends on the extent and extent of the damage that occurred as a result of hypoxia. The biggest problems include abnormal muscle tone, problems with coordination, swallowing and epilepsy.

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in cerebral palsy:
reduce brain edema
reduction of hypoxia
reduction the intensity of oxidative stress and increasing the activity of key antioxidant enzymes
improvement of muscle tone
improvement of sphincter control
improvement coordination and balance
improvement of eye contact, commitment and concentration
improvement language skills - understanding the language better, faster absorption of new words and concepts, increase vocabulary
improvement of appetite, functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system
improvement function of the immune system, bactericidal and fungicidal activity
reduce of epilepsy

Down syndrome (trisomy 21)


Down syndrome is a genetic disease that causes cognitive decline and predisposes to many disabilities and associated conditions, including such as congenital heart defects, squints, gastrointestinal defects, hearing loss, hypothyroidism and reduced immunity. Due to the nature of the disease, it is incurable, nevertheless hyperbaric oxygen therapy can effectively support the development and facilitate the everyday functioning of people with Down's syndrome.

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Down Syndrome:
improvement of muscle tone - better body stabilization, more pronounced speech, reduction of squint
improvement coordination and balance
improvement of eye contact, commitment and concentration
improvement language skills - understanding the language better, faster absorption of new words and concepts, increase vocabulary
improvement of appetite, functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system
improvement metabolism - reduction of body weight
improvement function of the immune system, bactericidal and fungicidal activity

Asperger's syndrome

Many researchers include Asperger Syndrome for developmental disorders from the autism spectrum. Characteristic for this team is, first of all, strong weakening of social skills, difficulties in accepting changes, limited flexibility of thinking in the absence of mental retardation and specific, obsessive interests. In contrast, speech development and cognitive development are more normal compared to pediatric autism. Research conducted at the University of California in Davis showed a much smaller number of nerve connections in the amygdala (responsible for the processing of information in interpersonal contacts) in people with autism. The discovery of mirror neurons responsible for recognizing other people's emotions, empathy, compassion and imitation, gave a new direction to research on autism and Asperger's Syndrome. Williams et al. Indicate that mirror neurons do not work properly in people with Asperger Syndrome. The reduced activity of mirror neurons in people with autism may explain problems in understanding the intentions of people around them.

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the Asperger Syndrome:
improvement of eye contact
bigger involvement and concentration
improvement coordination
improvement the speed of association and reaction
reduction hyperactivity to sound stimuli

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
There is no safe dose of alcohol to be consumed by a pregnant woman without a devastating effect on fetal development. FAS is characterized by sluggish physical development of the child both before and after birth. In children with alcoholic fetal syndrome, small and large motor disorders, problems with balance and coordination, attention disorders, adaptation and memory often occur. abnormalities in the functioning of the central nervous system also contribute to many educational problems: hypersensitivity, hyperactivity, outbreaks of aggression, problems at school.

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in FAS:
improvement of eye contact
improvement of interaction with the environment and psycho-social skills
improvement to good mood, reduction of timidity and irritability
improvement of memory, speed of association and reaction
bigger involvement and concentration
improvement improvement of language skills - faster assimilation of new words and concepts, increased vocabulary
improvement coordination and balance

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in neurological disorders

The brain needs a very large amount of oxygen to function properly about 3.3 ml of oxygenated blood for every 100 grams of brain tissue. It takes about 3-4 minutes without proper oxygen supply to create irreversible changes, damage and even death of the brain cells, especially in the cortex.

Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in diseases of the central nervous system:
abolition of hypoxia, i.e. inadequate oxygenation of tissues
improvement microcirculation conditions, e.g. through the formation of new blood vessels
improvement metabolism in the nervous tissue
reduce of cerebral edema due to vasoconstriction (vascular brain edema is caused by excessive accumulation of intracellular fluid. vasoconstriction or narrowing of pathologically dilated blood vessels contributes to stop the accumulation of extracellular fluid.)
increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier
promotes neurogenesis
protection already damaged areas in the nervous tissue
protection against subsequent consequences of brain injury, e.g. spastic limbs

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy by improving microcirculation, the process of creating new healthy blood vessels, and above all increasing the solubility of oxygen in the plasma, leads to better oxygenation and providing the right amount of nutrients to brain nerve cells. Improvement of neurotransmission between cells and to stimulate stem cells affect the setting operation of the entire nervous system.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in the treatment of such neurological conditions such as:
- strokes
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- cerebral palsy
- spinal cord injuries
- spontaneous paralysis of the facial nerve
- cranio-cerebral injuries
- multiple sclerosis

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in migraine and headaches

By. WHO headaches affect up to 92% of the human population, however, women form up to 75% adult groups struggling with this problem.
It turns out that that people suffering from migraine are three times more prone to depression than healthy people.

Mechanisms of migraine formation:
- Abnormal functioning of ionic cortical channel receptors may lead to stimulation of perivascular intracranial nerve fibers interpreted as pain.
- Excessive release of amines (including serotonin) in the brain stem leads to pathological contraction of blood vessels in the brain. Amines play an important role in the perception of pain, including therefore, perivascular nerve endings experience secondary diastole as a painful stimulus. Enlargement of cerebral and meninges increases the permeability of proteins and other compounds beyond their space, resulting in perivascular neurogenic inflammation, also interpreted as a painful stimulus. As a result of this process, irritated nerves are beginning to overreact to incoming stimuli resulting, for example. Photophobia or phonophobia.

The factors predisposing to migraines and headaches include: hormonal fluctuations, stress, hypertension, head and neck injuries, anxiety disorders, psychoactive substance abuse and painkillers. The analysis of the results of 9 publications (in total 201 patients) that checked the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, normobaric therapy and placebo in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache showed the highest HBOT efficacy in acute migraine conditions (Bennett et al., 2015).

Hyperbaric oxygen shows in as many as 80% of patients the effectiveness in interrupting a migraine attack after 40 minutes in a hyperbaric chamberEffedal et al. (2004) proved that the prophylactic use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces the number of seizures and weakens the intensity of migraine attacks. Scientific work Harch et al. (2011) carried out on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) soldiers showed that the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy was influenced by, among others, for a significant reduction in headaches, which translated into better quality of life.

Positive influence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in migraines and headaches:

- to improve oxygenation and nutrition of the brain, affecting the improvement of the functioning of the central nervous system
- the restoration of homeostasis in nerve cells translate into improved neurotransmission
- maintaining blood-brain integrity
- anti-inflammatory effect - a positive effect on the functioning of the immune system and cytokine inflammation
- regulation of blood pressure
- anti-stress and stress relief

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in nephrology and urology

The purpose of the urinary system is to maintain the correct concentration of the electrolyte and water in the body. The kidneys activate vitamin D, which is essential when absorbing calcium from food. In addition, they take part in the regulation of blood pressure and stimulate the production of red blood cells. All
the irregularities in the functioning of this system translate into big problems in the functioning of the whole organism, which can even lead to death of the patient.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a method of non-invasive, rarely giving complications and especially well tolerated by patients. Perfectly complements the treatment of diseases such as:
- interstitial cystitis
- ischemic cystitis
- radiation cystitis
- haemorrhagic cystitis after chemotherapy and transplantation
- necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier necrosis)
- urological disorders of ischemic substrate
- ureterolithiasis
- kidney failure

Studies with hyperbaric oxygen therapy conducted on patients with radiation cystitis showed improvement in 80-100% of patients in the form of resolution of haematuria, dysuric symptoms (painful urination, painful, constant or frequent urge to urinate, pollakiuria, burning sensation, itching, stinging of the area) urogenital pain and suprapubic area) and a partial or total image normalization cystoskopowego (Sieronia et al., 2006).

Van Ophoven et al. (2004) described the positive effects of aerobic hyperbarism in the volume of urinary excretion, reduction of the amount of micturition, significant reduction of pain and sudden urge to bladder, as well as increased bladder volume in patients with
interstitial cystitis.

In 2000, Fashchuk et al. Published a paper on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with renal colic caused by a ureteral tenement. After 3 days of treatment was observed a reduction in symptoms such as pain in the kidneys, painful urge to urinate, need
frequent urination. In 108 patients, the deposits were excreted and in 8 people they decreased and dislocated towards the bladder.

Hemodialysis is a procedure that weighs heavily on the patient's body. A common complication of this procedure is infection such as peritonitis or peritoneal catheter discharge. The procedure itself additionally intensifies hypoxia of the whole organism.

Positive influence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the urinary system:
- enhanced angiogenesis and neovascularization
- improvement of cellular microcirculation
- improvement of oxygen diffusion in damaged tissues
- reducing the acidification of the body
- improving the process of removing unnecessary metabolic products and toxins from the body
- strengthening the process of multiplication of epithelial cell fibroblasts
- reduction of inflammation
- reduction of edema and endothelial damage
- improving the functioning of the immune system
- bactericidal and fungicidal activity

Zastosowanie tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej w chirurgii

Zabiegi chirurgiczne wiążą się z ogromnym obciążeniem organizmu, m.in. ze względu na utratę krwi oraz podanie znieczulenia, które mocno oddziałuje na ośrodkowy układ nerwowy. Po operacji pacjent jest mocno osłabiony, zaś jego możliwości regeneracji często ograniczone.W trakcie rekonwalescencji najczęstszą przyczyną powikłań pooperacyjnych są zakażenia miejsca zabiegowego, które występuje wg. różnych autorów u ok. 84% pacjentów. Pomimo, że do ujawnienia się objawów dochodzi najczęściej już po wypisie do domu są to zakażenia szczepami bakterii wewnątrzszpitalnych, które wykazują wysoka odporność na najczęściej stosowane antybiotyki.

Wraz ze wzrostem ciśnienia rośnie nasycenie tlenem osocza krwi, przy ciśnieniu leczniczym 2-3 ATA poziom ten wzrasta aż 14-krotnie. Umożliwia to dostarczenie odpowiedniej ilości tlenu do tkanek nawet w sytuacji utraty dużej ilości krwi. Z tego powodu w USA tlenoterapia hiperbaryczna jest stosowana u osób, które odmawiają transfuzji krwi np. z powodów religijnych. (Neubauer i Golden, 2005) W wielu krajach na całym świecie stosuje się tlenoterapię hiperbaryczną u pacjentów, który mają przejść rozległe zabiegi chirurgiczne (szczególnie uwzględniając osoby z grupy ryzyka, u których może dojść do powikłań pooperacyjnych). Sesje HBOT odbywają się zarówno przed jak i po operacji. W pierwszej fazie mają na celu przygotować i wzmocnić organizm, natomiast w czasie  rekonwalescencji przyśpieszają regenerację, gojenie ran i zapobiegają infekcjom.

Duża infekcja w ranie może przyczynić się do powstania niedotleniania tkankowego pomimo prawidłowego ukrwienia z powodu dużego zużycia tlenu przez bakterie oraz produkcji toksyn bakteryjnych. Niedotlenienie w połączeniu z infekcją powoduje zahamowanie naturalnych procesów naprawczych (Armstrong i wsp., 1998; Knafel i wsp., 2008a).

Hiperbaria tlenowa zastosowana w sytuacji drastycznego obniżenia poziomu tlenu w tkankach (poniżej 20 mm Hg) powoduje wzrost ciśnienia parcjalnego O2, utrzymujące się do 6 godzin po
ekspozycji w miejscu hipoksji.

Dzięki temu dochodzi do:
– poprawy funkcji leukocytów
– bezpośrednie działanie bakteriobójcze na beztlenowce
– zmniejszenia produkcji oraz działania toksyn wytwarzanych przez bakterie
– poprawy wchłanialności i transportu antybiotyków
– namnażania się fibroblastów oraz zwiększenie produkcji kolagenu
– tworzenia nowego naskórka niezbędnego do zamknięcia rany
– zmniejszenia hipoksji tkanek
– nasilenia angiogenezy i ziarninowania
– pobudzenia wydzielania PDGF (płytkopochodny czynnik wzrostu)
– nasilenia wydzielania śródbłonkowych czynników wzrostu
– zwiększenia syntezy i wzrostu stężenia tlenku azotu (regulatora procesów w układzie nerwowym, krwionośnym i immunologicznym, np. odpowiada za rozszerzanie naczyń krwionośnych)

Neovius i wsp. (1997) opisali efekty leczenia za pomocą hiperbarii tlenowej w przypadku powikłań ran pooperacyjnych u pacjentów po radioterapii w obrębie głowy i szyi. Tlenoterapia hiperbaryczna zmniejszyła niedotlenienie tkanek, stymulowała angiogenezę i fibroplazję oraz działała antybakteryjnie. W grupie z HBOT całkowite wyleczenie zaobserwowano u 80% pacjentów, zaś częściowe u kolejnych 13%. W grupie kontrolnej do całkowitego wyleczenia doszło u 46% pacjentów. W grupie tej odnotowano jednak 2 przypadki ciężkich krwotoków, w tym jeden zakończył się zgonem.

Stock i wsp. (2014) wykorzystali tlenoterapię hiperbaryczną w leczeniu powikłań zespoleń po resekcji tchawicy oraz jej rekonstrukcji. Badacze sugerują stosowanie HBOT w celu przyspieszenia leczenia oraz uniknięcia tracheostomii.
Zastosowanie hiperbarii tlenowej u chorych z porażeniem elektrycznym zmniejsza śmiertelność oraz ogranicza rozległość zniszczeń spowodowanych prądem elektrycznym. Ułatwiło oczyszczanie ran ze zmian martwiczych, ograniczyło rozwój infekcji w ranach oraz skróciło czas przygotowania rany do przeszczepu skóry (Knafel i wsp. 2008b). HBOT równie skutecznie wspomaga opracowywanie ran i leczenie oparzeń, do których doszło w wyniku kontaktu z wysoką temperaturą (ogień, wrząca woda itp.), ponadto ogranicza zakres amputacji uszkodzonych kończyn (Kawecki i wsp., 2006).

Tlenoterapia hiperbaryczna w przypadku poparzeń palców skraca pobyt w szpitalu oraz zmniejsza ilość operacji. Zaobserwowano znacznie szybsze przyjmowanie się przeszczepów skóry oraz ograniczenia przypadków odrzutu (Kindwall i wsp., 1991)

Hiperbaria tlenowa działa ochronnie na wykonane operacyjnie płaty mięśniowe, skórno-mięśniowe i skórne stosowane w leczeniu szczególnie opornych na klasyczną terapię zapalenia kości oraz zapalenia kości i szpiku.

Przeżywalność płatów wzrasta do 64% w stosunku do 17% leczonych standardowo.

Ponadto HBOT przyśpiesza tempo różnicowania osteoblastów oraz zmniejszenie ilości osteoklastów, które prowadzą do szybszego tworzenia się kości, a tym samym do zrostu kostnego oraz znacznego skrócenia czasu połączenia z autogennymi przeszczepami kości. (Sieroń i wsp., 2007).

Stosowanie HBOT we wczesnym okresie po przeszczepieniu wątroby zmniejsza ryzyko powstania zakrzepicy w naczyniach wątrobowych oraz redukuje ilość zakażeń, a tym samym istotnie wpływa na możliwość odrzutu (Mazariegos i wsp., 1999)..

Wprowadzenie do leczenia hiperbarii tlenowej przez 3 dni po częściowej (15-20%) resekcji miąższu wątroby spowodowało normalizację stężenia glutaminy w surowicy, która jest wskaźnikiem powrotu prawidłowego funkcjonowania wątroby (Sevilov, 2004). (Mazariegos i wsp., 2004) Tlenoterapia hiperbaryczna zastosowana u dzieci z wczesną zakrzepicą tętnic wątrobowych po ortotopowowej transplantacji wątroby (OLT) znacząco wydłużyła czas do retransplantacji. Średni czas retransplantacji w tej grupie wynosił 157 dni (zakres 3-952 dni) od początkowej OLT, w grupie kontrolnej czas ten wynosił średnio 12,7 dni (zakres 1-64 dni).

Badania Juang i wsp. (2002) przeprowadzone na myszach z cukrzycą po transplantacji wysepek Langerhansa (wysepki trzustki wydzielający insulinę) wykazały, że stosowanie tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej po zabiegu zwiększa wydajność i wzrost przeszczepu wysepek, poprawiając jego skuteczność. Pomimo nowoczesnych środków stosowanych w anestezjologii nigdy nie będą one obojętne dla organizmu pacjenta, ponieważ wpływają na ośrodkowy układ nerwowy. Szczególnie wrażliwe na znieczulenie są dzieci, u których OUN nie jest w pełni rozwinięty.

Badania Monk i wsp. przeprowadzone w latach 2000-2004 wykazały, że częstym i poważnym problemem jest występowanie pooperacyjnej dysfunki poznawczej (POCD) po zabiegach chirurgicznych, które utrzymują się nawet 3 miesiące po podaniu znieczulenia. Jako POCD uważa się spadek o 20% i więcej wyników z testów psychometrycznych wykonanych przed operacją. Istotne jest iż naukowcy wykluczyli z badań osoby po zabiegach kardiochirurgicznych i neurochirurgicznych, podobnie jak osoby z zaburzeniami neurologicznymi, nadużywające narkotyków oraz z depresją w wywiadzie. wykazano, że POCD tydzień po zabiegu występowało u 35% pacjentów poniżej 40 r.ż., 56% w wieku średnim (40-59 lat) oraz u 69% starszych pacjentów. Natomiast 3 miesiące po zabiegu odpowiednio 6,7%, 13% i 24%. U osób z 3 grupy (powyżej 59 r.ż) dodatkowe badania ujawniły obniżony poziom tlenu we krwi docierającej do mózgu.

Best i Pavel (2017) opisali przypadek 77-letniego mężczyzny, u którego otępienie wywołane znieczuleniem utrzymywało się 4,5 roku po operacji wszczepienia endoprotezy stawu kolanowego. Otępienie objawiało się bardzo znacznym upośledzeniem umiejętności poznawczych, fizycznym oraz emocjonalnym w porównaniu do stanu przed zabiegiem (np. nie pamiętał swojego nazwiska, nie wiedział jaki jest dzień tygodnia, wykazywał dużą lękliwość).

Badania SPECT wykazały duże nieprawidłowości w funkcjonowaniu mózgu oraz przepływu krwi w obu półkulach w tym grzbietowo-bocznej korze przedczołowej (pamięć robocza, planowanie ruchów i działań), płatach skroniowych (m.in. rozumienie mowy, rozpoznawanie obiektów i twarzy) oraz obszarach oczodołowo-czołowych (hamuje impulsywne działania). Dzięki zastosowaniu 40 sesji tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej w ciśnieniu leczniczym 1,75 ATA oraz podawaniu etanerceptu u pacjenta nastąpiła bardzo duża poprawa stanu zdrowia, tzn. przypominał sobie imiona dzieci, poprawiło się rozumienie mowy, zaczął przyłączać się do rozmów, mógł samodzielnie wychodzić na spacery bez obawy iż się zgubi, uregulował się tryb dnia i nocy (spał po 7h dziennie), stał się znacznie spokojniejszy.

Badania SPECT wykonane po leczeniu (w odstępie 5 miesięcy od poprzednich) wykazały znaczną poprawę perfuzji mózgu.

Podsumowanie działania tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej po przebyciu zabiegu operacyjnego:
– zwiększa natlenienie organizmu oraz pobudza procesy tworzenia się nowych naczyń krwionośnych
– wspomaga prawidłowe funkcjonowanie organizmu nawet po utracie dużej ilości krwi
– przyspiesza regenerację organizmu oraz leczenie rany pooperacyjnej
– zwiększa wrażliwość organizmu na zastosowane leki, w tym na antybiotyki
– pozytywnie wpływa na funkcjonowanie układu odpornościowego, działa bakteriobójczo i grzybobójczo
– zmniejsza stan zapalny, obrzęk oraz odczucia bólowe
– poprawia gojenie się kości – zwiększa aktywność osteoklastów i osteoblastów, poprawia mineralizację kości i
gęstość kości
– zmniejsza tworzenie się tkanki włóknistej i blizn (zapobiega powstawaniu m.in. blizn przerostowych)
– zwiększa regenerację nerwów obwodowych
– cofa otępienie wywołane znieczuleniem

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of diabetic complications

Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by an elevated level of glucose in the blood that is caused by problems in the production or operation of insulin. In Poland already have diabetes 3 mln people. , and their number is constantly growing (approx. 2.5% per year) is suspected that about 600 thousand. people not yet diagnosed, because diabetes itself is painless. For this reason, many people often explain the first symptoms for a very long time, for example by exhaustion.

Untreated diabetes leads to microangiopathy, tissue hypoxia and ischemic changes, it increases the risk of stroke and predisposes to greater damage to the brain tissue. Patients have advanced atherosclerosis of the coronary and cerebral arteries and a reduced response to vasodilators is observed. Damage to the arterial endothelium and disturbance of normal vessel elasticity leads to tissue ischemia.

microangiopathy leads to the development of nephropathy (kidney damage), retinopathy (damage to the vessels in the eye that may lead to blindness) and neuropathy (a disorder of the microcirculation in the nerves, which usually manifests sensory disorders primarily in the lower leg and
and feet).

Patients with diabetes have severe immune problems that predispose them to frequent and very difficult to treat bacterial and fungal infections.
Deterioration of blood circulation in the feet, atherosclerotic changes, sensory disturbances and weakening of repair processes contribute to the formation of so-called diabetic foot - changes in the necrotic tissues of the foot.

- In the world die each year about 3.5 million diabetics.
- Diabetes can shorten life expectancy by up to 10 years
- Every year, 14,000 are amputated lower limbs due to the so-called diabetic foot
- three thousand Polish diabetics lose sight every year.
- 3 billion zloty's (about half of expenditure on diabetes) generates expenses related to diabetes complications, including: 75% of cardiac complications, 14% of strokes, 8% of kidney disease and 1% of eye disease and diabetic foot

Already in 1991 Gonchara studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy affects the microvascular complications of diabetes caused by normalizing the rheological parameters of the blood (eg whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, fibrinogen concentration).
A common effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a decrease in blood glucose levels. A study by Peleg et al. (2013) on patients with diabetes, traumatic brain injury or after cerebral brain and healthy volunteers showed that this decrease is statistically significant only in diabetics.
„Leczenie zespołu stopy cukrzycowej jest wielokierunkowe. Bardzo istotna jest prawidłowa terapia minternistyczna oraz chirurgiczne opracowanie rany. By complementing this treatment is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The aim is to reduce the infection, direct toxic effect anaerobes improvement of wound healing. As research shows, the use of HBOT in combination treatment of the foot treatment of diabetic patients led to complete healing of wounds or significant improvement local condition, which prevented amputations or allowed to limit the scope of amputation.” (Łatka and co. 2009)

In patients with compensated diabetes and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, due to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, there was complete disappearance of dysesthesia (disorder of normal sensation manifested by weakness or painful hypersensitivity), paresthesia (feeling strange - usually takes the form of tingling, numbness or changes in skin temperature [feeling of strong cold] or hot), pains in the distal limbs and cramps in the arms and legs. Most likely, this may have been caused by a decrease in the severity of non-degeneration in neurons and an improvement in oxygen utilization [Viera et al. 1999].

Operation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of diabetic complications:
- lowering the level of blood glucose
- increase in insulin sensitivity
- creation of new blood vessels
- the creation of new nerve connections
- increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and blood-retina
- improvement of cellular metabolism
- reduction of apoptosis

- strengthening the multiplication process of epithelial cells and collagen fibers
- increased neurogenesis of mac cells. in the bone marrow and system. nervous
- weight reduction
- reduction of inflammation
- improving the functioning of the immune system
- increasing the sensitivity to antibiotics
- bactericidal and fungicidal activity

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in dentistry and implantology

Gums and periodontal disease, tooth decay soon after, are the most common causes of tooth loss. In Poland, even 50-60% of the population suffer from it. Conditions in the mouth (heat and moisture) will be a perfect place for the development of bacteria and fungi that cause the formation of many troublesome and painful lesions in this area.

The analysis of swabs has shown that anaerobic bacteria account for as much as 90% of dental plaques at the site of chronic periodontitis (Teughels et al., 2012).

Oxygen tension (partial pressure of gas in the blood) in periodontal pockets is very low and amounts to only 5-27 mmHg (compared to pO2 in blood is 95 mmHg). The functions of fibroblasts and leukocytes with a pO2 less than or equal to 30 mmHg is significantly attenuated (Mettraux et al., 1984).

Research Signoretto et al. (2007) showed that the combination of hyperbaric oxygen with SRP (scaling and root planning - thorough cleaning of subgingival calculus deposits and smoothing the root surface) reduces by 99.9% the amount of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB - microorganisms responsible for endogenous infections, intensifying inflammatory processes) in the subgingival space. Low levels of pathogens maintained for at least two months after treatment.

Chen et al. (2012) argue that combined therapy involving the combination of HBOT and SRP is the most effective method of treatment of aggressive periodontitis. The therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is based on the bactericidal activity, and for inhibiting the development of anaerobic. Clinical observations suggest that the effect of combination therapy may persist for up to 2 years.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is very effective in the treatment of periodontitis, regardless of age. For this reason, researchers recommend HBOT as an appropriate non-surgical method for the elderly (Zhou et al., 2004).

HBOT possesses a wide anti-inflammatory effect, it takes place, inter alia, through the influence on cytokines that cause inflammation. Under the influence of hyperbaric oxygen level of prostaglandin (PGE 2 - mediator of inflammation), in the alveolar bone and the gum inflamed drops by more than 60% (Chen et al. 2002).

Dental implants are a commonly used method to replace the missing teeth. This method consists in inserting the implant directly into the bone, so that it is effective, it must come together and form a new bone. In 1999, Granstrom et al. Conducted an experiment to test the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the ability to form bones. For this purpose, implants have been used in patients after radiotherapy. The insufficiency of the implant (no osteointegrality occurred) was observed in 53.7% of the group after irradiation, whereas in the group after radiotherapy and HBOT only in 8.1%.

The activity of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in dentistry and implantology:

  • increased angiogenesis and neovascularization
  • increases blood flow in the gum
  • raises pO2 in the periodontal pockets
  • It improves the functioning of the immune system by increasing the capability of destroying microbes by leucocytes
  • acts bactericidal and fungicidal
  • it damages the metabolism of anaerobic cells
  • inhibits the growth of bacteria
  • It reduces swelling and anti-inflammatory properties, among others, by interfering with the inflammatory cytokines
  • increases the absorption and transport of antibiotics
  • improves cellular metabolism
  • promotes replication of fibroblasts and collagen formation
  • accelerates the healing of cavities in the mucous membrane and wounds after implant surgery
  • supports the process of bone formation, and thus osteointegrality of the implant with the bone

Hyperbaric oxygenotherapy effectively supports the treatment of dental diseases such as:

  • oral mycosis
  • perleche and mouth ulcer or even angular stomatitis
  • gingivitis
  • parodontosis
  • periostitis
  • infection of periodontal tissues
  • wounds after implantation of the dental implant

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sport

Sports injuries arise during acute injury and against the background of repeated overloads, they concern both people practicing sports as well as professionally. However, in the case of the latter group is the enormous pressure to deliver the fastest return to the efficiency at low risk of subsequent damage.

The most common sports injuries:

- abrasions, blisters and minor wounds
- bruises
- stretching, tearing
- sprains, dislocations and fractures
- head injuries

The human body gains strength and toughness during the process, which involves the formation mikrourazu and then repaired or the overgrowth of tissue. Problems arise when the burden causing the injury exceeds the remedial capacity of the body. Therefore it is very important is proper selection and training program Wellness. Hyperbaric oxygen can effectively serve as a means of preventing injuries and improve short and long-term prognosis of already injured injuries. In the world, an increasing number of athletes are systematically using HBOT (Eg. Cristiano Ronaldo, Dale Steyn, Dejan Zavec, Yuri Tepeš, Robert Kranjec, Peter Prevc, Grzegorz Krychowiak).

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy by improving microcirculation, angiogenesis and neovascularization processes, and above all increasing the solubility of oxygen in the plasma, leads to better oxygenation and providing the right amount of nutrients to the cells of the whole body. The intensive proliferation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts of collagen fibers allows the formation of a healthy, elastic skin and thereby wound healing.

Bruises usually are treated as trivial trauma, but this type of damage to large muscle groups can cause a significant reduction in muscle function, and their improper treatment of serious complications. Hyperbaric oxygen stimulates natural self-healing ability, accelerates absorption of haematomas form new blood vessels and decreases swelling.

Muscles gain the energy to work as a result of alternating aerobic and anaerobic. However, during the anaerobic formed relatively less ATP molecules and their by-product is lactic acidWhich results in acidification of the muscles, and increases the fatigue. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy delivers more oxygen to the aerobic transformation, and especially accelerates the removal of lactic acid from the body.

Partial damage to the muscles, together with delayed soreness (DOMS) usually occurs when the muscles are not accustomed to the kind of physical activity. Studies by Bennett et al. (2005) on 66 non-active men aged 18-35 have shown that HBOT accelerates regeneration of the quadriceps muscle of DOMS.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy accelerates the return to an efficiency (test carried out for functional and morphological) after the acute damage to the anterior tibial muscle as a result of excessive stretching (Best et al., 1998). Damage to skeletal muscles as a result of prolonged ischemia can lead to the loss of cellular homeostasis and the breakdown of phospholipids in the cell membrane, which in turn affects the ability of muscle work. Studies by Gregorevic et al. (2000) indicate that the main factor improving the functional capacity of muscles during the use of aerobic hyperbarism is the increase in oxygen pressure stimulating the regenerative capacity of muscle fibers after myotoxic damage.

A study conducted in 1995 at Temple University found that those who were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy after the dislocation of the ankle efficiency returned to 30% faster than the control group.

Operation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on bone and joints comprising:
acceleration the process of bone healing by stimulating the growth of osteoblast
increase bone mass (bone mineral density and trabeculae) and improving the mechanical properties of bones
reduction pain sensations and edema
increase mobility in the joint and improvement of functional results
improvement elasticity and strength of ligaments, tendons and muscles caused by increased expression of type I collagen and structural proteins as well as inhibition of degeneration processes
improvement tensile strength of the tendons by increasing the trabecular attachment of the tendon to the bone

By. Mountain (2001), exercise capacity is the ability of the body to exercise. Hyperbaric oxygen significantly increases physical performance by increasing the diffusion of the lungs, and thus the oxygen level in the body, the formation of new blood vessels, the improvement of minute capacity and cardiac contractility. Better performance and improves the formation of new mitochondria metabolism functioning and results in the generation of more molecules of ATP. Positive effect on the urinary translates into better maintain the correct concentration of the electrolytes and water in the body.

Head injuries account for approx. 16% all sports injuries, usually comes to them as a result of a fall or collision. Serious or frequent repetitions of this area can cause, among others, memory loss, problems with concentration, and frequent headaches.

The decisive factor often about sports results are correct player decisions. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves the functioning of the nervous system through better nutrition and oxygenation of the brain, creating new neural connections and improving neurotransmission. In patients have better concentration, and speed of response to changing environmental conditions.

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Lyme disease

Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by bacteria (spirochete Borrelia family). Infection most commonly occurs through the bite of a tick, but also spread the bacteria Borrelia some bot flies, horseflies, lice and even mosquitoes.
These bacteria live intracellularly and cross the blood-brain barrier which strongly hinders the pharmacological treatment.
Furthermore, Borrelia in a human body is present in the 3 forms (spirochete, L form and cysts) and each of them reacts to a different type of antibiotic. Via the blood spirochetes spread to distant sites - the joints, heart, nervous system - contributing to the disorder of the system and degeneration. The cause of symptoms of Lyme disease is a toxin secreted by bacteria, the amount of which increases over time. Spirochetes derive energy from the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, which is why oxygenation of the body weakens them.

tlenoterapii hiperbaryczna

by improving microcirculation, angiogenesis and neowasklaryzacji, and above all to increase the solubility of oxygen in the plasma leads to a better oxygenation of the body and increases its sensitivity to drugs. HBOT eliminates bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa from the body. The evidence of an aerobic hyperbarism in the treatment of Lyme disease may be the occurrence of Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions. Dead spirochees secrete toxins that are gradually eliminated by the liver or kidneys. When organs do not keep up with the excretion of toxins, symptoms such as fever, headaches, chills, muscular and bone pain, pruritus, nausea and vomiting, and skin rashes are observed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has protective properties against anaerobic bacteria toxins, thus reducing tissue damage.

HBOT

thanks to the regulatory properties of the immune system, it acts on cytokines that cause inflammation. Beneficial effects include improved functioning and regeneration of joints. Patients suffer from reduced pain sensations and joint swelling. Aerobic hyperbaria supports the body's natural ability to regenerate and heal itself, stimulates neurogenesis and neurotransmission. Positive effects also include improved cardiovascular fitness.
Research Fife`a et al. (1998) showed that the use of therapeutic pressure to 2,36 ATA ensured improvement or complete resolution of symptoms approx. 85% patients. Also relevant is the fact that before turning HBOT to treat some patients drug was ineffective, and even watched the deterioration of their condition.

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in aesthetic and anti-aging medicine

Both aesthetic medicine and anti-aging are aimed at reversing the aging process. An important difference between them, however, is that aesthetic medicine focuses on external appearance while anti-aging includes processes that take place throughout the body. The perfect complement, and sometimes even replacing, measures in both these areas is hyperbaric oxygen therapy because it works at the cellular level.

With age, metabolism slows cell accumulates to cell damage and decreases the amount of oxygen in the body. All these processes result in diseases and changes in appearance. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not limited to local reactions. By providing a much larger amount of oxygen than under everyday  Hyperbaric oxygen therapy helps the body's natural ability to regenerate and self-healing.

During the procedure, the hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood, lymph fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Providing oxygen to the cells of the whole body causes such positive  changes as:
- formation of new blood vessels
- improving cellular metabolism
- reduction of apoptosis
- strengthening the multiplication process of epithelial cells and collagen fibers
- mitigating oxidative stress
- reduction of peroxidation (oxidation process) of lipids
- increasing stem cell neurogenesis in the bone marrow and nervous system
- improving the functioning of the cardiovascular, nervous and digestive
- improving the process of removing unnecessary metabolic products and toxins from the body
- weight reduction

These changes translate into better functioning of the whole organism and improve the appearance of the skin. The skin becomes more nourished, radiant, the number of wrinkles decreases and the contour of the face is improved.

hyperbaric oxygen therapy Hyperbaric oxygen effectively supports treatments and measures to stimulate the production of collagen, moisturizing and nourishing the skin. Equally important is the fact that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly affects the reduction of complications after aesthetic medicine treatments such as inflammation, infection, allergic reactions, burns, bruises, bruises, swelling, abscesses and blood clots.

improves microcirculationImproves microcirculation, angiogenesis and neovascularization affect the faster disappearance of bruises and hematomas. By the action of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the cytokine causing inflammation, reduction of swelling and damage to the endothelium enables faster regeneration.
It improves functioning immune system by affecting the leukocytes, bactericidal and fungicidal action and inhibition of toxins produced by the anaerobic bacteria. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is an effective treatment method for difficult to heal wounds used all over the world.

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in ENT

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of ENT is very common in Europe, for example. Germany approx. 80% of patients with renal middle ear is targeted for treatment in a hyperbaric chamber.

How does hyperbaric oxygen therapy work in the case of ENT problems?

Sensitive cells of the inner ear are supplied with oxygen by diffusion from the endolymph, because they do not have direct vascular supply. Deficiency of oxygen in cells can result in abnormal correct functioning. When the hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the partial pressure of oxygen in endolimfie and thus comes to compensate for a lack of oxygen in these cells.

In a study by Lamm in 1989, through the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy achieved an increase in oxygen partial pressure in the cochlea by over 460% in guinea pigs after the acoustic trauma. While continuing research on these same animals it was also observed an increase in the partial pressure of oxygen in perylimfie labyrinth.

What kind of hearing disorders can be effectively treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy? In accordance with the recommendations of the German Society for ENT-Diseses, Head and Neck Surgery)

• tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma, cranial trauma, sudden hearing loss and Meniere disease

• hearing loss associated with Meniere's disease, toxic damage, caustic trauma, skull injury and infection

• deafness associated with sudden hearing loss, Meniere's disease, toxic damage, acoustic trauma, cochlear damage, auricular herpes zoster, pressure trauma and postoperative complications

• deafness associated with sudden hearing loss, Meniere's disease, toxic damage, acoustic trauma, cochlear damage, auricular herpes zoster, pressure trauma and postoperative complications

Zastosowanie tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej w dermatologii i trudno gojących się ranach

Skin it is the largest organ of our body, it is a barrier separating from the environment, and at the same time provides contact with it.
Skin diseases are often neglected in the early stages, but have a huge impact on daily functioning.
Due to the rich innervation of the skin, most of the disease states are very painful.
Interrupted connectivity skin is the perfect gateway for all pathogens (including viruses, bacteria, fungi), which often can seriously harm our health.
Bad condition, the appearance of the skin often causes malaise and many complexes of patients.
In contrast, abnormal wound healing can lead to severe limitation of limb and torso mobility.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used to treat a number of pathologies of the skin surface ischemic infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Hyperbaric oxygenotherapy by improving microcirculation, angiogenesis and neovascularization processes, and above all increasing the solubility of oxygen in the plasma, leads to better oxygenation and providing the right amount of nutrients to the skin cells. An intensive process of multiplication of epithelial cells' fibroblasts and collagen fibers allows the formation of healthy, elastic skin and healing of wounds. Anti-inflammatory properties of hyperbaric oxygen therapy have been widely described in the literature. Effects on cytokines that cause inflammation, reduction of edema and damage to the endothelium allow faster regeneration. It improves the functioning of the immune system by affecting leukocytes, has a bactericidal and fungicidal effect and inhibits toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria. Impact on internal organs results in easier removal of unnecessary metabolic products and toxins from the body, and thus affects the condition of skins, which becomes more radiant.

Hyperbaric oxygenotherapy effectively supports the treatment of such skin diseases as:

psoriasis
- atopic dermatitis
eczema
- bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues
- wounds caused by lower limb ischemia
- frostbite
- burns
- hard-healing wounds

Zastosowanie tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej w ortopedii, traumatologii i reumatologii

The human motion system consists of 206 connected bones and about 450-500 muscles. It allows, among others maintaining a vertical posture, moving individual parts of the body, moving and protecting internal organs.

There are many causes of motor system diseases, they may be caused by both genetic predispositions, life-style and unfortunate accident.

Hiperbaic Oxygen Therapy increases the amount of oxygen physically dissolved in the plasma and improves blood flow at the site of injury. The increase in oxygen pressure in the bones and the surrounding soft tissues stimulates the activity of macrophages and fibroblasts, creates new blood vessels and inhibits inflammatory processes, contributing to the acceleration of the wound healing process.

Cheng-Pu et al. (2010) have shown that high pressure combined with high oxygen saturation stimulates the growth of osteoblasts with retained proliferation growth. These findings suggest that aerobic hyperbaria stimulates cell proliferation at the site of fracture. Numerous studies confirm the acceleration of the rate of osteoblast differentiation and the reduction of osteoclasts, which lead to faster bone formation, and thus to bone union and a significant reduction in the time of connection with autogenous bone grafts. The use of aerobic hyperbarism in fractures increases bone mass (bone mineral density, trabecular) and shows better mechanical properties.

Badania przeprowadzone na kobietach w wieku 50-65 lat chorujących na osteoporozę wykazały, że stosowanie samego HBOT powoduje spowolnienie procesu utraty gęstości kości, natomiast połączenie go z leczeniem farmakologicznym prowadzi do znacznego wzrostu masy kostnej. Normalizację obrazu kości ocenianą za pomocą rezonansu magnetycznego zaobserwowano u 81% pacjentów z aseptyczną martwicą głowy kości udowej. Tlenoterapia hiperbaryczna jest również cenioną metodą wspomagania leczenia popromiennej martwicy kości.
A study conducted in 1995 at Temple University found that those who were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy after the dislocation of the ankle efficiency returned to 30% faster than the control group.

HBOT used 6 weeks after damage to the tibial lateral tibial ligament (MCL) of the knee joint of the second degree has a positive effect on pain sensation and functional results, reduces swelling and increases the range of mobility in the joint.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy used in the treatment of injury to tendons and ligaments accelerates the formation of scar tissue by increasing expression of type I procollagen, thereby contributing to the improvement of their strength. The best results were achieved using a treatment lasting 60 min and a pressure of at therapeutic 2 ATA.

The combination of aerobic hyperbarry with standard procedures in the case of severe injuries of the lower limbs accompanied by bone fractures, damage to the arteries and veins and crushing of the muscles resulted in a reduction in the frequency of amputation or limitation of its level at the subsequent stage of treatment (Radonic et al., 1995).

A common factor causing post-traumatic bone infection is anaerobic bacterial infection. HBOT improves the functioning of the immune system, and acts baktrerio grzybogójczo, reduces damage caused by anaerobic bacteria, toxins and increases the body's sensitivity to antibiotics.

Damage to skeletal muscles as a result of prolonged ischemia can lead to the loss of cellular homeostasis and the breakdown of phospholipids in the cell membrane, which in turn affects the ability of muscle work. Studies by Gregorevic et al. (2000) indicate that the main factor improving the functional capacity of muscles during the use of aerobic hyperbarism is the increase in oxygen pressure stimulating the regenerative capacity of muscle fibers after myotoxic damage
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, autoimmune disease of inflammatory joints.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy due to the regulatory properties of the immune system acts on the cause of this disease. Beneficial effects include improvement of functioning and regeneration of joints. Patients suffer from reduced pain and joint swelling, and there is a reduction in the dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered. 94.4% of patients with arthritis of the spine zesztywniejącym show a positive response to treatment HBOT, which has been assessed based on clinical studies and analysis of laboratory tests.
mprovement in the health of patients have also been reported in rheumatoid arthritis patients in the form of Raynaud's syndrome, trophic ulcers, inflammation, arterioles and phalanges of ischemic neuropathy (Sieronia et al., 2006).

Oxygen therapy supports the treatment of diseases such as:
- fractures (including those treated with the Ilizarov method)
- sprains and dislocations
- aseptic bone necrosis
- aseptic bone necrosis
- osteoarthritis
- extensive injuries to bones and soft tissues of the limbs
- osteochondrosis
- osteoporosis
- fibromyalgia
- fibromyalgia - carpal tunnel syndrome
- rheumatoid and osteoarthritis (eg. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis of the spine, Raynaud's syndrome, inflammation of the arterioles phalanges)

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in depression

Epidemiological studies conducted around the world show that the lifetime suffers from depression approx. 17% of the population.The occurrence of depression may be influenced by difficult survival as well as genetic and biological causes. Endogenous causes of depression result from abnormal functioning of the central nervous system at the cellular and protein level. All drugs for this disease arose after the analysis of biological causes and act symptomatically at the cellular level (they support the functioning of the system, but they do not cure the cause of the disorder).

The biological causes of depression are seen in [D.Baczyńska - psychiatrist]:
„- upośledzenie produkcji monoamin – neuroprzekaźników: serotoniny, noradrenaliny lub dopaminy
- a disorder of the serotonin transporter and its accompanying enzymes
- formation of inflammatory processes (inflammatory theory). In the limbic system of the brain, non-characteristic inflammatory processes and the activation of the immune system occur.

We also observe similar activation in the body of a person suffering from depression
neuronal neuroplasticity disorder. The neuroplasticity of the brain is based on the adaptation of brain structures to the needs of human functioning as well as to stress. Of particular importance is the ability to endure prolonged stress without triggering the pathological mechanisms that mitigate stress, eg. Depression. In depression, the plasticity of the brain is impaired, which results in the absence of self-healing mechanisms and causes that depression does not disappear spontaneously. At the same time, recurrent depression in life may cause a decrease in the volume of some brain structures, eg the hippocampus. The hippocampus is the brain co-responsible for memory, emotion, mood.
reducing the excitability of melatonin receptors as a result of which dysregulation of circadian rhythms and the appearance of insomnia occur. Insomnia often overtakes depression.

Tendency to depression can be inherited in the genesbut they are not always activated. It turns out that the regulator of gene expression is vitamin D3, which can have a protective and preventive function in patients with depression. Predispositions to depression are demonstrated by patients with: heart diseases, hormonal disorders and metabolic syndromes, diseases of the central nervous system, reduced liver and kidney function, cancer and chronic diseases.
The results of the study by Yan et al. (2015) have shown that the treatment consisting in the combination of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and pharmacotherapy significantly reduces symptoms in patients with depression after a stroke measured using the HAMD (Hamilton's Depression Scale) scale and SSS (Scandinavian Stroke Scale). Combined therapy with the use of HBOT brought much better results than routine therapies.
The effectiveness of the treatment of chronic effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) using hyperbaric oxygen therapy studies confirm Harch et al. (2011) carried out on 16 war veterans (3 years after the traumatic event). Positive effects of HBOT included improvement in such areas as: good results in cognitive tests, improvement of quality of life, increase of blood flow, among others, in the hippocampus on brain scans (SPECT imaging).

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen in soldiers with TBI and PTSD:

- decrease in depressive symptoms by approx. 50%
- reducing the severity of suicidal thoughts
- a much better frame of mind
- dose reduction or total discontinuation of psychoactive drugs (in 2/3 of patients)
- reduction of headaches by approx. 30%
- reduction of PTSD symptoms by about 30% (ADHD, sleep problems, concentration, difficulties in memorizing, irritability, anger, fainting, excessive alertness)
- improvement of short-term memory, concentration and executive functions
- better results in intelligence tests (about 15 points on average)

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy thanks to the process of angiogenesis and the increased flow of blood rich in oxygen and nutrients, it allows them to reach in greater quantities to every cell of the body, including the brain. This translates into better functioning of the central nervous system.

By influencing glial cells, hyperbaric oxygen therapy leads to a multifaceted repair, including activation of angiogenesis, triggering neuroplasticity (reactivation of resting neurons, formation of new synapses and new neural connections), and induces neurogenesis of endogenous neuronal stem cells (Boussi-Gross et al., 2013; et al., 2005, Yang et al., 2008, Gunther et al., 2005).

Positive changes within the hippocampus translate into better performance of the function, i.e. consolidation of newly acquired skills, transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory, and play an important role in spatial orientation. The effect on the pineal gland is manifested by a better regulation of day and night mode, and thus translates into, among others, on the quality of sleep.

The inflammatory process in the brain activates microglia (immune cells) to fight beta-amyloid toxins. During this process, microglia, through its excessive reaction, destroys millions of healthy cells on the occasion (Rogers et al., 1996). Anti-inflammatory properties of hyperbaric oxygen therapy have been widely described in the literature.
Due to its influence on cytokines that cause inflammation, oxygen therapy removes the cause and not only relieves symptoms. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy by improving the functioning of the digestive system affects the better absorption of nutrients from food, including vitamins. Impact on the urinary system improves the removal of toxins from the body.

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of digestive system diseases

The task of the digestive system is to provide the body with all the ingredients necessary for
its construction and reconstruction of tissues, as well as water and energy substances to maintain the process
life.

Beneficial effects on the functioning of the immune system, bactericidal and fungicidal action reduce the number of complications after surgery and reduce the translocation of endogenous intestinal bacteria in the case of acute intestinal obstruction. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves bowel contractility enhancing the way their peristalsis.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy supports the treatment of digestive disorders such as:
- peptic ulcer disease
- bowel obstruction
- Leśniowski Crohn's disease
- other intestinal diseases
- viral hepatitis
- peripancreatic abscess

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in oncology

In Poland every year there are 155 thousand new cancer cases and 93,000 deaths due to cancer. As many as 30% of patients who report to an oncologist already have changes in distant organs. The basic methods of cancer treatment is radiotherapy and chemotherapy, even though they are aimed at destroying cancer cells also operate on healthy tissue and thus they cause many troublesome and painful complications.

In solid tumors often it occurs hypoxia microenvironment, which plays a key role in 
tumor progression, including tumor angiogenesis, rate of mutation, metastasis and resistance for radiation and chemotherapy. One of the factors that induce drug resistance Anti-cancer is a high level of inhibitor STAT3that grows in hypoxic tissues. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy by improving microcirculation, angiogenesis and neovascularization processes,   primarily, increasing the solubility of oxygen in the plasma, leading to better oxygenation and providing the right amount of nutrients to the cells of the whole body. Allows it allow the regeneration processes of damaged damaged tissues during the fight with  cancer (bones, skin and mucous membranes). A serious complication associated with taking chemotherapy is leukopenia, consisting in the reduction of the number of immune cells. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Improves functioning of the immune system by affecting leukocytes, bactericidal and fungicidal and inhibits toxins produced by bacteria anaerobic.

 

In a pilot series of in vivio experiments that were performed on a mouse ovarian cancer model it has shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy to inhibit the growth of ovarian tumor hypoxia caused by reduction of expression STAT3. (Selvendiran et al., 2009).

Research by AL-Waili and co. indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases oxygenation of the tumor and improves the sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of many solid tumors. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is further effective in the treatment of radiotherapy complications such as damage to soft tissues and bones, symptomatic responses radiation in the urinary bladder, the intestine and larynx, optic neuropathy radiation-ignition anus and necrosis of the brain.

In patients after mastectomy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy effectively supports the treatment of wounds after surgery, it improves the vascularization of irradiated tissues, helps in the treatment of infection and thus prevents  loss of tissue, which would prevent subsequent breast reconstruction.

In patients with cancer, the almond bottom and / or soft palate treated with radiotherapy hyperbaric oxygen therapy improved the ability to swallow, decreased xerostomia Dryness of mouth due to salivary gland damage), and pain in the oral cavity (Teguh et al., 2008).

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in oncological rehabilitation:
- increases the sensitivity of solid tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy
- allows regeneration of damaged tissues
- reduces the level of tumor necrosis factors and markers of inflammation
- accelerates the treatment of difficult to heal wounds
- accelerates the treatment of peptic ulcers
- affects the functioning of the immune system
- bactericidal and fungicidal
- strengthens intestinal contractility - improves intestinal peristalsis
- affects the bone marrow - the formation of blood cells and stem cells
- improves the patient's frame of mind

Zastosowanie tlenoterapii hiperbarycznej w nadwadze i otyłości

Overweight and obesity can not be considered only in terms of aesthetics, because they carry very serious health problems. As many as 90% of people with diabetes are obese, and the predisposition to hypertension and atherosclerosis increases by a factor of 8. The negative impact of unnecessary kilograms is not limited only to the impact on the circulatory system, the most common ailments are: stroke, heart attack, sleep apnea, kidney stones, gallbladder disease, constipation, hemorrhoids, bone and joint pain, curvature of the spine, urinary tract infections, cancer testes / endometrium.

Recent research shows that Health problems in overweight and obesity are caused by chronic inflammation of adipose tissue:

Studies by Lumeng and Saltiel (2011) indicate that obesity causes chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue, which leads to many metabolic changes. One of the causes that causes this inflammation may be hypoxia of adipose tissue (Trayhurn, 2014). Chronic inflammation in obesity is caused by an excess of nutrients in the mitochondria (Fjeldborg et al. 2014). Chronic inflammatory processes are the main cause and / or consequence of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and obesity (González-Chávez et al., 2011).

Low oxygen levels lead to disturbances in lipid metabolism (Yao et al., 2013), thus preventing them from performing their functions in the body. Lipids are an important source of energy, they enable the absorption of vitamins (A, D, E, K), they participate in the transmission of signals and are part of the biological membranes.

 Obstructive sleep apnea is most likely the direct cause and consequence of weight gain (St-Onge and Shechter, 2014). Sleep apnea is the cause of restless and often interrupted sleep. The body hypoxia caused by this causes causes headaches, fatigue and weakness after waking up. Often accompanied by difficulty concentrating and remembering, heaviness, lethargy and depression. Untreated sleep apnea leads to many serious diseases (including hypertension, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, potency disorders, Pickwick's syndrome).

Research by Barazzone-Argiroffo et al. (2001) showed that the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in mice causes them to lose weight and increase the level of leptin and adipokine, which play an important role in the regulation of food intake.
Tsuneyama et al. (2011) conducted an experiment on obese hyperlipidemic mice, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic liver disorder (NAFLD). Also in these animals a decrease in body weight was observed under the influence of aerobic hyperbarism. Researchers explain this phenomenon by improving systemic metabolism due to the delivery of more oxygen to peripheral tissues and the possibility of preventing excessive activity of pathogenic cells in adipose tissue along with the induction of apoptosis (natural cell death).

 Sessions in the hyperbaric chamber cause a drop in the level of glucose in the bloodWhen the basic glucose levels ranged 120-170 mg / dl fell to <100 mg >in the range of <120 mg >/ dl (Al-Waili et al., 2006).

Insulin sensitivity in people with obesity increases already during 3 hyperbaric oxygen therapy in therapeutic pressure of 2.0 ATA (Wilkinson et al., 2012).

A study by Wilkinson et al. (2015) conducted on men with overweight or obesity without and with type 2 diabetes showed an increase in insulin sensitivity following the use of aerobic hyperbarism. This growth continued for at least 30 min after the end of the session in the hyperbaric chamber. Researchers suggest that increased insulin sensitivity is caused by the effect of HBOT on inflammatory cytokines.

An overview of the work on the effectiveness of aerobic and strength exercises in the burning of visceral fat revealed that exercises of the first group demonstrate greater effectiveness (Ismail et al., 2011). During aerobic transformation energy is produced in the fat burning process. Oxygen hyperbarism provides a greater amount of oxygen for aerobic transformation, and above all accelerates the removal of lactic acid (by-product of anaerobic transformation) from the body, thus preventing excessive acidification.

 During a 60 min treatment in a hyperbaric oxygen pressure of 2.0 ATA therapeutic metabolism at the cellular level greatly speeds up, which causes burning about 500 kcal (this corresponds to 1 hour of swimming or 45 minutes of running). Among other things, this is why hyperbaric oxygen is an excellent method of supporting the fight against overweight and obesity.

Evaluation of the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in overweight and obesity:

reduction of tissue hypoxia and inflammation

improvement of metabolism

weight reduction

regulation of the feeling of appetite

intensification of angiogenesis and neovascularization

strengthening and increasing the elasticity of blood vessels

normalization of rheological parameters of blood

improvement of blood glucose control

improvement of myocardial contractility and cardiac output

increasing physical efficiency

reduction of pain and edema, joint regeneration

wzmocnienie procesu namnażania się fibroblastów komórek nabłonka i włókien kolagenowych 

szybsze gojenie ran i rozstępów, poprawa elastyczności skóry

improve the functioning of the immune system, increasing susceptibility to antibiotics, bactericidal and fungicidal

better absorption of nutrients from food and improvement of intestinal peristalsis

a positive effect on the quality of sleep

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in cardiology

The circulatory system deals with the distribution of all essential substances throughout the body. The functioning of other systems is closely related to the state of the circulatory system. Every year, about 91 thousand people die from cardiovascular diseases in Poland. women and about 82 thousand men.

The beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on heart disease have been known for a long time. hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the elasticity of red blood cells, reduces swelling of tissues, preserves intracellular adenosine triphosphate and maintains tissue oxidation even in the absence of hemoglobin. This is manifested among others, improving the tolerance of effort, a positive effect on the patient's well-being, relieving pulmonary hypertension and symptoms of right ventricular failure.

The main cause of causing acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction) is the complete occlusion of the coronary artery that supplies blood to the heart through atherosclerotic lesions. HBOT normalizes the rheological parameters of blood (among others, viscosity of whole blood, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, fibrinogen concentration) due to which normalize its viscosity and reduces the tendency to intravascular coagulation.

Longer hypoxia leads to the loss of the ability of ion homeostasis, accumulation of oxygen free radicals and degradation of cell membranes, which translates into arrhythmia in coronary heart disease. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy by increasing the amount of oxygen in the tissues restores their ability to function properly and thus reduces or completely removes the phenomenon of arrhythmia.

Hyperbaric oxygenotherapy effectively supports the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as:
- stable form of ischemic heart disease
- acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction)
- Heart arythmia
- heart defects

Positive influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the cardiovascular system:
enhancement the process of angiogenesis and neovascularization
reinforcement and increasing the flexibility of blood vessels
normalization of rheological parameters of blood
reducing blood catecholamine levels (compounds that accelerate heart rate)
limit cardiovascular complications
reduction tissue hypoxia
reduction duration of coronary pain
reduction or complete removal of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction
decrease the amount of contractions for normal heart function
improvement contractility of the myocardium
decrease the amount of contractions for normal heart function
improvement cardiac capacity
reduction severity of hyperventilation symptoms

Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in post-partum rehabilitation

Pregnancy and childbirth are a great time for every woman, but they are a big burden on the body. The energy expenditure of a physiological delivery is comparable to the marathon, or 42 km! Then in approx. 6 weeks after delivery, all anatomic, morphological and functional changes are reversed. For such important changes a large amount of energy is needed, which is sometimes missing. This translates into distortions in enjoying the joy of learning and bonding with the newborn baby.

Problems faced by women after childbirth:
- bleeding and painful spasms associated with uterine involution
- predisposition to infections and infections of the intimate areas caused, among others, by the change in the pH of the vagina
- constipation and hemorrhoids
- the burden of kidneys and bladder caused by rapid, significant blood reduction and its filtration
- painful and difficult wound healing after cesarean section or crotch incision
- swelling of the legs
- excessive reduction of reproductive organs and stress incontinence
- tiredness, depressed mood
- hormonal fluctuations
- stretch marks, flaccid skin
- lactation disorders

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is a fully natural method of supporting the body in regeneration and self-healing. During the treatment in the hyperbaric chamber, the solubility of oxygen in the plasma significantly increases at 2 ATA amount of oxygen is increased up to 14-fold.

hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves microcirculation, processes of angiogenesis and neovascularization, and above all, increases the solubility of oxygen in the plasma, leads to better oxygenation and provides the right amount of nutrients to whole body cells. As a result, an adequate amount of energy is delivered to the processes occurring in the woman's body, which translates, among others, into faster involution of the uterus.

Adequate oxygenation of the brain and the improvement of metabolic-regenerative processes has a regulatory effect on the functioning of the body, including the nervous and endocrine systems. Thanks HBOT relaxes, refreshes and improves mood, which after birth due to the large hormonal fluctuations is usually heavily reduced or even predispose to the occurrence of postpartum depression.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy positively affects the functioning of the immune system, acts bactericidal and fungicidal, affects the cytokines of inflammation and increases the effectiveness of medicines used, including antibiotics. The anti-inflammatory effect along with the properties reducing swelling enables faster biological recovery, wound healing, prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for intimate infections and prevents lactation disorders caused by inflammation of the breast gland. The intensive process of multiplication of epithelial cells and collagen fibers increases the elasticity and strength of soft tissues (skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments and fascia).

This allows faster regeneration stretched abdominal muscles, wound healing, already created stretch marks and prevents the formation of new ones. The skin becomes firm, radiant and better nourished. Strengthening of the support organs, can prevent excessive lowering of the genital organs and therefore the creation of stress urinary incontinence.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy due to the positive effect on the kidneys optimizes the process of removing waste products and toxins from the body and helps maintain normal levels of electrolytes and water in the body. Constipation may contribute to the delay of uterine contraction and, above all, predispose to the formation of haemorrhoids. HBOT increases blood circulation in the intestines, translating into better absorption of nutrients from the food, also improves intestinal contractility thus improving their peristalsis.

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